“An intracortical brain–computer interface combined with functional electrical stimulation allows an individual with traumatic spinal cord injury to perform coordinated reaching and grasping movements.” Claimed By Scientists

This is not based on single research work and particularly is not achieved by single person it is based on many researches executed in many years to achieve this milestone. Probably here are given major researches which contribute to make this possible which was a wonder in earlier days.

Researches Refrences

1: Lebedev, M. A. & Nicolelis, M. A. L. Trends Neurosci. 29, 536–546 (2006).

Brain Machine Interferences:

Extract:

Now a days BMIs made for both experimental and clinical reports can change raw neuronal signals into motor signals that help in arm reaching and hand grasping actions in artificial actuators. Obviously, these improvements hold promise for the recovery of limb ability to move in paralyzed bodies. To make this happen a couple of factors which includes developing a fully embed-able biocompatible saving device, further producing real-time computational algorithms, launching a method for giving the brain with neurological feedback from the actuators, and planning and building manufactured prostheses that can be operated directly by brain-extracted signals.

2: Hochberg, L. R. et al. Nature 485, 372–375 (2012).

Reach and Grasp By People With Tetraplegia Ssing a Neurally Controlled Robotic Arm

(Published online 16 May 2012)

Extract

Paralysis right after spinal cord injury, brainstem stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other diseases can disconnect the brain from your body, reducing the ability to execute volitional movements. A neurological interface system1, 2, 3, 4, 5 could recover mobility and freedom for people with paralysis by converting neuronal task directly into command signals for assistive equipment. Here we illustrate the capability of two individuals with long-standing tetraplegia to make use of neural interface system-dependent command of a robotic arm to complete 3-dimensional reach and grasp motions. Participants operated the arm and hand over the wide space without specific training, using impulses decoded from a tiny, local population of motor cortex (MI) nerves noted from a 96-channel microelectrode array.

3: Collinger, J. L. et al. Lancet 381, 557–564 (2013).

High-Performance Neuroprosthetic Control By an Individual With Tetraplegia

Background

Brain–machine connections could present a solution to fixing many of these lost features because of paralysis or ampulation. We thus examined whether a person with tetraplegia could quickly achieve neurological charge of a high-performance prosthetic limb utilizing this type of an interface.

Findings

The participator was capable to move the prosthetic limb easily in the 3-dimensional workspace on the 2nd day of training. Right after 13 weeks, robust seven-dimensional motions were performed consistently. Mean achievements rate on target-based attaining tasks was 91•6% (SD 4•4) vs median chance level of 6•2% (95% CI 2•0–15•3).

The participator was capable to move the prosthetic limb easily in the 3-dimensional workspace on the 2nd day of training. Right after 13 weeks, robust seven-dimensional motions were performed consistently. Mean achievements rate on target-based attaining tasks was 91•6% (SD 4•4) vs median chance level of 6•2% (95% CI 2•0–15•3).

Video Showing 7D Sequence Task Performance Of Controlled Brain:

. Four consecutive trials of the 7D Sequence Task under full brain-control. Translation targets are indicated by LED lights shown in the video. Text indicates orientation and grasp targets. Although the orientation commands were specified as wrist positions, the participant actually had control of 3D orientation about the MPL endpoint, not individual wrist joints.

Video 2:

Action Research Arm Test. Participant using the MPL under full brain-control to perform the Action Research Arm Test on Day 87 Post-Implant.

Video 3:

Movement Corrections using the MPL.

Video 4:

Different Grasp Approaches.

4: Peckham, P. H. & Knutson, J. S. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 7, 327–360 (2005).

Also based on grasping moments.

5: Moritz, C. T., Perlmutter, S. I. & Fetz, E. E. Nature 456, 639–642 (2008).

Direct Control of Paralysed Muscles by Cortical Neurons

Extract

A potential therapy for paralysis as a result of spinal cord injury is to route command signals from the brain all over the injury by man-made connections.
“Here we reveal that Macaca nemestrina monkeys can immediately control stimulation of muscles working with the activity of neurons in the motor cortex, and thus restoring goal-targeted actions to a transiently paralysed arm.”
Such instant transforms from cortical task to muscle stimulation could be executed by autonomous electronic circuitry, generating a relatively natural neuroprosthesis.
These final results can recompense for interrupted physiological path ways and recover volitional management of activity to paralysed limbs.

6: Ethier, C., Oby, E. R., Bauman, M. J. & Miller, L. E. Nature 485, 368–371 (2012).

Restoration of Grasp Following Paralysis Through Brain-Controlled Stimulation of Muscles

Extract

Patients having spinal cord injuries are lacking the connections between brain and spinal cord tracks that are important for voluntary movements.We have developed an FES system in primates that is managed by recordings manufactured from microelectrodes entirely incorporated in the brain. We simulated a few of the effects of the paralysis the result of C5 or C6 spinal cord injuries3 by injecting rhesus monkeys using a local anaesthetic to prevent the median and ulnar nerve fibres at the elbow. Then, applying recordings from approximately 100 neurons in the motor cortex, we expected the intended activity of many of the paralysed muscles, and utilised these predictions to manage the intensity of stimulation of the identical muscles. This process effectively bypassed the spinal cord, fixing to the monkeys voluntary control of their paralysed muscles.

7: Bouton, C. E. et al. Nature 533, 247–250 (2016).

Restoring Cortical Control of Functional Movement in a Human With Quadriplegia

Extract

Neuroprosthetic devices are developed to recover lost function and could be applied to form an electronic ‘neural bypass’ to bypass disconnected routes in the nervous system. We utilized machine-learning algorithms to decipher/decode the neuronal action and control activation of the patient’s forearm muscles via a custom-built high-resolution neuromuscular electrical activation system. The system provided separated finger motions and the participant attained continuous cortical control of six various wrist and hand motions. Moreover, he was able to use the system to finish functional tasks related to daily living. Clinical analysis showed that, when applying the system, his motor incapacity enhanced from the 5th to the 6th cervical (C5–C6) to the 7th cervical to 1st thoracic (C7–T1) level unilaterally, conferring on him the critical skills to grasp, hold, and put out objects. This is the first demo to our knowledge of successful control of muscle arousal using intracortically registered signals in a paralysed human.

8: Ajiboye, A. B. et al. Lancet  (2017).

9: Borton, D. et al. Sci. Transl. Med. 5, 210rvd (2013).

10: Soekadar, S. R. et alSci. Robot. 1 eaag3296 (2016).

11: Abdollahi, F. et al. Neurorehabil. Neural Repair 31, 487–493 (2017).

12: Capogrosso, M. et al. Nature 539, 284–288 (2016).

A Brain–Spine Interface Alleviating Gait Deficits After Spinal Cord Injury in Primates

Extract

Spinal cord injury disturbs the communication among the brain and the spinal tracks that orchestrate activity. To avoid the lesion, brain–computer interfaces1, 2, 3 have straight linked cortical action to electrical activation of muscles, and have thus recovered grasping skills after hand paralysis1, 4. In this research we interface leg motor cortex activity to get a epidural electrical arousal protocols to set up a brain–spine program that relieved gait failures after a spinal cord injuries in non-human primates. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were incorporated with an intracortical microelectrode array in the leg place of the motor cortex and using a spinal cord stimulation system consists of a spatially selective epidural enhancement and a pulse generator with real-time causing capabilities. We developed and implemented wireless control systems that connected online neural decoding of expansion and flexion motor declares with stimulation protocols promoting these motions. These systems permitted the monkeys to react freely without any limitations or constraining tethered electronics. After affirmation of the brain–spine interface in undamaged (uninjured) monkeys, we carried out a unilateral corticospinal area lesion at the thoracic place. As soon as six days post-injury and without previous training of the monkeys, the brain–spine program renewed weight-bearing locomotion of the paralysed leg on overground and a treadmill. The implantable elements integrated in the brain–spine interface all have been authorized for investigational applications in identical human research, indicating a practical translational route for proof-of-concept scientific studies in people with spinal cord injuries.

13: Laschi, C. Sci. Robot. 1, eaah3690 (2016).

14: Rognini, G. & Blanke, O. Trends Cogn. Sci. 20, 162–164 (2016).

15: Flesher, S. N. et al. Sci. Transl. Med. 8, 361ra141 (2016).

Extract

Intra-cortical micro-stimulation of the somatosensory cortex provides the potential for developing a sensory neuroprosthesis to recover tactile feeling. Whereas animal research have suggested that each cutaneous and proprioceptive percepts may be evoked using this strategy, the perceptual high quality of the stimuli can’t be measured in these research. In this research we show that microstimulation inside the hand region of the somatosensory cortex of a individual with long-period spinal cord injury evokes tactile emotions perceived as coming from locations on the hand and that cortical activation sites are structured according to expected somatotopic concepts. Several of these percepts display naturalistic characteristics (including sensations of pressure), can be evoked at low activation amplitudes, and remain secure for months. Further, modulating the stimulation amplitude marks the perceptual severeness of the stimuli, indicating that intracortical microstimulation can be used to express information concerning the contact location and stress necessary to execute dexterous hand motions associated with object adjustment.


The above mentions all researches paved the way for this mind blowing milestone. This will be available for public services in a couple of years due to its high expenses.

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